Diuretics, commonly called water pills, are drugs that promote diuresis, that is increased production of urine. Diuretics work on the kidneys to eliminate water and electrolytes thus they have important applications in renal and cardiovascular disorders. This pharmacology lecture covers topics such as structure and function of nephron; afferent arteriole, Bowman’s capsule, glomerulus, efferent arteriole, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, descending limb, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct, principal cells, intercalated cells, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, reabsorption, secretion, urine production; Mechanism of action of diuretic drugs and their side effects; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, loop diuretics, thiazide diuretics, potassium-sparing diuretics, and osmotic diuretics. Diuretics mentioned include; Acetazolamide, Bumetanide, Ethacrynic acid, Furosemide, Torsemide, Chlorothiazide, Chlorthalidone, Hydrochlorothiazide, Indapamide, Metolazone, Amiloride, Eplerenone, Spironolactone, Triamterene, Mannitol, and Urea.
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